解析常见托福写作题型

学习方法

在托福写作备考中,了解题型是我们需要考虑的问题。。今天小编给大家带来解析常见托福写作题型,希望能够帮助到大家,下面小编就和大家分享,来欣赏一下吧。

解析常见托福写作题型

托福写作题型1. 政府投资

People should keep all the money they earn and should not pay taxes to the
state. Do you agree or disagree?

托福写作题型2.文化类

i. It is more important for a building to serve its purposes than to look
beautiful. Architects do not need to worry about whether it is a real work of
art. Do you agree or disagree?

ii. The international tourism is the biggest industry in the world. To what
extent do you think its advantages far outweigh its disadvantages?

托福写作题型 3. 科技影响

Many employees may work at home with modern technol.y. Some people claim
that it benefits only workers, but not employers. To what extent do you agree or
disagree?

托福写作题型 4. 全球化影响

There is a disagreement on the impact of increased business and culture
contact between countries on a country’s identity. What is your opinion?

托福写作题型 5. 生活工作

Some people think that changing jobs periodically is good. What is your
opinion?

托福写作题型 6. 传媒类

Some people suggest that there should be restrictions on a detailed
description of crimes in the newspapers and on television. To what extent do you
agree or disagree?

托福写作题型 7. 教育类

i. Some people believe that educating children alt.ether will benefit
them. Others think intelligent children should be taught separately and given
special courses. Discuss both views and give your own opinion.

ii. Today, more school leavers are unable to find jobs. Discuss the causes
of rising unemployment among young adults and suggest any solutions.

托福写作题型 8. 环境类

It is said that the best way to solve the world’s environmental problems is
to increase the price of fuel. To what extent do you agree or disagree?

托福写作题型 9. 动物类

Far too little has been done to prevent animals and plants from dying out,
although people have noticed this problem for a long time. Why have people
failed to improve this situation? What are your suggestions?

托福写作题型 10.广告类

There are many advertisements directed at children. Parents argue that
children are misled, while advertisers consider advertising a source of useful
information. What is your opinion?

托福写作:如何避免写出假的thesis statement?

1.这是不是一句grammatically-complete的句子?

2.它是否arguable(可以被议论的)?

3.它是否supportable(可以被支持的)?

4.它是否表达了一个main idea?

5.它是否是个疑问句?

来看一下例子:我的观点是California was the best trip ever. 那么这句话是否是个合格的thesis
statement呢?通过问自己这5个问题我们就可以判断出来。

1.这是不是一句grammatically-complete的句子?

是的。这句话有主语和谓语。

2.它是否arguable(可以被议论的)?

是的。很明显,我是通过对比了其他地方的旅行经历才得出了加州是最棒的这一观点。

3.它是否supportable(可以被支持的)?

是的。我会用三个分论点来支持我的观点。1)learning how to surf at Malibu; 2) going sightseeing;
3) meeting Vincent.

4.它是否表达了一个main idea?

是的。我只有一个main idea:having a fantastic time in California.

5.它是否是个问句?

不是问句。

thesis statement永远不可以是一个问句。

所以,基于这五个问题的分析,我们可以确定California was the best trip ever.这句话是一个合格的thesis
statement。

在了解了什么是thesis statement的基础上,来看一下什么是假的thesis statement。

a statement of fact 事实的陈述

a.Alaska is a big state.

这是一个不能够被讨论的事实,是一个真理。

b.Californian red wine is the best in the world.

这句话可以作为thesis statement因为是完整的一句话,能够被议论,被支持,表达了一个主要观点,并且不是疑问句。

a question

a. Is global warming a problem?

这里又要强调一遍thesis statement永远不可以是一个问句。

b. Global warming threatens the future of the planet.

这句话可以作为thesis statement因为是完整的一句话,能够被议论,被支持,表达了一个主要观点,并且不是疑问句。

a sentence fragment

a. Paris: the most beautiful cityin Europe.

这句话不是完整的句子。缺少“is”。

b. Without a doubt, the TOEFL iBTis a true measure of your potential.

这句话可以作为thesis statement因为是完整的一句话,能够被议论,被支持,表达了一个主要观点,并且不是疑问句。

simple announce the topic

a. In this essay, I will talkabout the problem of teenagers drinking and
driving in my country, Argentina.

这句话只是告诉读者将要写的内容(topic),而没有出现观点。

b. Personally, I think thatteenagers must finish high school before they
can get a driver’s license.

这句话可以作为thesis statement因为是完整的一句话,能够被议论,被支持,表达了一个主要观点,并且不是疑问句。

丨练习:判断真假thesis statement

everyone should learn a foreign language.

How difficult is it to get a perfect score on the TOEFL iBT?

The CEO told us that the company had no other choice but to lay off five
thousand employees.

In this essay, I’m going totalk about dogs and cats, and other domestic
animals.

Iwona is ecstatic. Her grades are so good she got into Harvard and Yale.
Now she must choose which one she will attend.

Last night, I went to an Italian restaurant and had lasagna.

The TOEFL iBT consists of four sections: reading, listening, speaking, and
writing.

There are many English language proficiency tests; however, TOEFL is the
test you must take if you are serious about studying at an English-speaking
college or university.

Drinking a bottle of red wine every day will make you smarter.

Why is the price of gasoline going up?

答案:

托福写作:结构性词汇介绍

英文写作和中文写作在行文习惯和逻辑上都有很大的差别,这一点之前在之前介绍如何解决指代不明的问题时就已经提到过了。整体上看,相比于中国(或者说东方)风格的婉转隐晦,美国人则更坚持简洁明了。那么从行文习惯上,这个特点有一个很常见的体现,那就是结构性词汇的使用。这里所说的结构性词汇是我自己起的名字,可能不同的人有不同的说法。这些词汇在文章当中的作用就是表明和构建框架,告诉读者每一部分的内容分别是什么。它们与逻辑关联词的最终目的相似,都是为了使文章看起来调理更加清晰、结构更加合理。

对于综合写作来说,各位老师通常为同学们提供的模板当中很多都是结构性词汇,最典型的就是序数词和类似序数词作用的一些表达。简单的有first,second,third,高级一些的有first
of all,moreover,in
addition等等。这些是用来分隔和标明综合写作的三段主体段,方便读者(即阅卷人)理解和寻找要点。另外很重要的一种结构性词汇就是“阅读文章提到”“听力部分认为”等等这类说明观点持有者身份的部分。有了这些我们才能明确下面我们所体现的内容到底是哪一份材料的观点,从而避免歧义。

对于独立写作,结构性词汇也有非常重要的作用。与综合写作相同的就是我们需要用到分隔并标明分论点的序数词。这些序数词或者类似功能的词汇出现,读者就能意识到后面一般会紧跟着一个主体段的分论点。除此之外,为了体现清晰的结构脉络,主体段内其他几个关键环节(比如“说理”和“论据”)也需要结构性词汇的引入。比如说理,即把主旨句当中的理由再表达得更清晰明确一些,所以引入说理环节的结构性词汇就可以是:

1. That is to say, ...

2. To be more specific, ...

3. In other words, ...

他们的意思也很简单,分别是“那就是说”“更具体地说”“换句话说”。而引入论据的方式就更简单了,for example/take sth.as an
example等等都很常见。

关于结构性词汇的重要性,笔者也是在美国留学的过程中逐渐意识到的。因为在自己的essay甚至论文当中,导师和写作指导都曾或多或少强调了这些词汇的重要性。也就是说,一旦内容上进入了不同的部分或者环节,就应该用明确的标志物表明这种转换。当然文中提到的一些结构性词汇还是非常简单的几个,同学们可以询问老师或课后自行积累,以获得更多逼格更高更地道的表达。

继续阅读