托福写作思路需要注意什么

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想要完成一篇成功的托福写作,不但要快速破题,还要有一定的托福写作思路。今天小编给大家带来托福写作思路需要注意什么,希望能够帮助到大家,下面小编就和大家分享,来欣赏一下吧。

托福写作思路需要注意什么?

1、要与论题相匹配。论题问的既然是提高生活质量与否,一些无关紧要的改变就应该弃之不用,比如烹调时间缩短这一项改变,是事实,且未对生活质量有直接明显影响,就应该避免用作主要论点。

2、要能言之有物。这是再功利不过的一条标准。比如我自己提到了食物准备时间缩短能让人性情改变,破题时觉得不无可能,真落笔时却不知道由何说起,如果选了这一条为一个主要论点,结果是我说了一句话就走人,那还不如选个能下笔,能展示语言功底,也能显示思维缜密的写作方向。

3、选择的无论是2个还是3个论点,内在一定要有联系。这其实是整个托福写作立意阶段的重头。要立意,就是要明白自己表达的对象是什么,明确立场。然后站在这个立场上,挑选支持自己的论点。

托福写作破题结束后,第二要做的重要事项便是整理行文思路。破题过程其实是个发散思维的过程,而立意,则是要把思维收回来,组织化,理清它的脉络纹路,让他们按照自认为最有说服力的顺序排列好,准备落于纸上的过程。这个说服力的强弱,应该以什么标准判断呢?笔者认为,能说服读者的议论,在论点选择上应该遵循一个原则:

三个(或者两个)论点不能在层面上有交叉,但要符合一条明线:支持全文观点。而最打动读者的论点选择,不仅遵循上面的原则,三个看似不交叉的论点间还有一条暗线贯穿一致。

立意的第一步,按照上面的原则看,当然是先确定观点。以题目为例,笔者愿意选择否,食物易于准备降低了人们的生活质量。第一步踏出去了。

确定观点后,破题时得到的思维方向,明显不利于我的就应该排除。比如营养价值改变这一条,虽然速食文化的确对人体有害,但另一项速食:生疏和熟粗粮,就是向有益方向改变的,两者势均力敌,仅管是很容易想到,也很容易举例论证的论点,却不宜使用,因为如此贸然用了,有思维不缜密之嫌。

托福独立写作高分小技巧:Rhetorical Questions

如果说参加托福考试时在综合写作中还可以适当使用“模板”的话,那么独立写作里“模板”的使用往往会被并标以“pre-prepared”,因此考生想通过这种“捷径”提高得分的结果不会特别理想。独立写作提高得分的关键还是“实力说话”。

尽管“模板”效果有限,但短期提高得分的技巧还是很多,如活用“万能理由”和巧用“论证方法”等。本文主要介绍在独立写作中很多考生没有注意的一个加分“小”技巧—rhetorical
question的使用。

在托福写作实战中,rhetorical question的使用能够起到很好的加分作用。为了说明rhetorical
question的加分作用,请看托福Official Guide评卷人对一篇题为Dishonesty Kills
Reliability的满分作文的点评。下面是点评中关于language的comment:

The writer's language is fluent, accurate, and varied enough to effectively
support the progression and connection of ideas. There is a variety of sentence
structures, including rhetorical questions.

评卷人把rhetorical questions看做加分点!

从上面的点评中,我们可以清楚的得出这个结论——至少评卷人把上述段落中的反问句视作一种“句型变化”而加以肯定和褒扬。

那么,何谓rhetorical question?Rhetorical question会不会很难?

我们先来看在托福Official Guide里备受评卷人赞誉的rhetorical
question实例。在原文第四段中,为了说明honesty的重要性作者是这样写的:

In any relationship of mine, I would wish that first of all, the person I'm
dealing with is honest.Even though s/he thinks that s/he did something wrong
that I wouldn't like,s/he'd better tell me the truth and not lie about it. Later
on if I find out about a lie or hear the truth from someone else, that'd be much
more unpleasant. In that case how can I ever believe or trust that person
again?How can I ever believe that this person has enough confidence in me to
forgive him/her and carry on with the relationship from there.……

提问而不需对方回答,提问只是为了表明并强调作者的立场。这不就是汉语中的“反问”吗?维基百科对反问句的定义是:

A rhetorical question is a figure of speech in the form of a question
thatis asked to make a point rather than to elicit an answer. Though a
rhetorical question does not require a direct answer, in many cases it may
beintended to start a discussion or at least draw an acknowledgement that
thelistener understands the intended message.

还有学者对反问的定义更加清楚:

A rhetorical question is asked just for effect or to lay emphasison some
point discussed when no real answer is expected.

那么,rhetorical question为什么能够收到评卷人的赞誉而得到加分?这就要从托福作文的评分标准说起了。托福Official
Guide里面对于高分作文的要求(Scoring Rubic)描述如下:

.ffectively addresses the topicand task

.s well organized and well developed, appropriate explanations,
exemplifications, and / or details

.isplay Unity, progression, and coherence

.isplay consistent use of language,demonstrating syntactic variety,
appropriate word choice, and idiomaticity

从上面的评分标准可以清楚看出,rhetorical question能够帮助我们满足实现评分标准第四条中的“demonstrating
syntactic variety”。这也正是官方指南中评卷人的点评。

其实,除了体现“句型变化”,合理使用rhetorical question还能帮助我们满足评分标准第一条的要求“effectively
addresses the topic and task”。事实上,rhetorical
question不仅能够有效的回应主题,还能强调作者的观点从而获得读者的认同。rhetorical
question的这种强调作用最著名的范例可能算是雪莱《西风颂》Ode to the West Wind的结尾了:

“O Wind,If Winter comes,can Spring be far behind?”

另外,问句,尤其是设问的合理使用还能起到很好的衔接作用,也就是评分标准的第三条“Display Unity, progression, and
coherence”。因此,有学者把rhetorical question的篇章作用总结如下:

? Emphasize a point

? Persuade powerfully

? Influence subtly

? Provoke thinking

? Help smooth transition

限于篇幅,对这些作用就不一一举例了。顺便说一下,rhetorical question后面的标点并不一定总是question
mark,有时也可以是句号或感叹号。

下面,本文作者提供一篇自己写的样文,请大家分析问句在开头、中间和结尾段中的使用。

Some people prefer to ask others for help; others prefer to solve the
problem with their own knowledge. Which is your choice?

Such is human nature that everyone longs for happiness in our life.
Unfortunately, on the path to pursue happiness, we are likely to face various
problems. How to solve them? Should we rely on ourselves to remove the obstacle
or turn toothers for a cure?From my perspective, it is more reasonable to ask
others for help.

Admittedly, always hinging on others to solve problems might be irrational
in some cases. For example, if you ask an acquaintance with whom you haven’t a
close tie to lend you a hand, he might be reluctant, because most of us have our
own care and concern. Besides,some people are unwilling to shoulder the
responsibility for the advice they offer. It’s not a rare case when we ask our
friend for advice on what major to choose only to get a reply: “Well, it’s
really hard to say. Who knows what your real interest is? Who knows what major
will be popular when you graduate?”

In spite of the points mentioned above, I still cling to the idea that we
should depend on others for the following reasons.

First of all, asking others for help can save us much valuable time, time
that we can use for other purposes. As is known to all, most people in
contemporary society are always burdened with endless stress and strain. To be
admitted to prestigious universities, schoolchildren have to burn midnight oil
to out do their peers in exams; likewise,university students can do nothing but
to work against the clock to lend themselves an edge over others in the talent
market so that they can land adecent job. Given the quickening pace of life, how
can we expect us to remove all the obstacles only by ourselves?

In addition, turning to others for help is an efficient way for us to
enlarge our circle of friends. It is not a rare case that friendship might be
formed after we ask others for help. Take myself as an example. After helping me
find a cure for my personal health problem, one of my colleagues has become my
best friend. Now, when in trouble,he also asks for my advice. No wonder some
even state that it is an efficient way to find friends by “bothering” others for
their help.Sounds surprising?It is a discovery revealed inrecent research
conducted by a group of leading experts.

Most importantly, it is the only choice to call for help when the solution
to a problem requires expertise. Itis known to all that today’s society differs
greatly from what it was before. Even a century ago, most folks could be
self-sufficient: they grew grain on their own land and wove cloth on their own
looms, which seems unimaginable in modern society. Unlike the “good old days”,
modern society is a huge complex machine in which each person can serve only as
a tiny part.For example, City dwellers depend on farmers for grain while farmers
rely on factory workers for industrial products; in the same way, factory
workers may temporarily drown our worries in soap operas shown on the screen
while film-makers cannot have a film produced, however talented they might be,
without the talents of play wrights,directors, photographers, actors or
actresses.

Why not ask others for solution when necessary?Good or bad, this might be
the best choice left to us.

托福写作:“定义法”三步快速解决写作开头难

模版开头一

when it comes to the topic that…, opinions of the public are of great
variety. Admittedly, some people would claim that….. However, I still insist
that… My reasons will be listed as follows.

又比如在涉及到A和B两个对象的影响类的题目里,常见模版开头二:

Nowadays, the influence of A on B is a matter for debate for a long time.
some people claim that… However, I disagree with them. In my viewpoint, … and
the following is my reasons.

模版可以用,但是不建议同学们拿到题目就直接带入模版,一来语言会显得呆板,二来托福官方对模版的态度为“不扣分,不加分”,因此模版对于想要高分的同学学来说并没有太大优势。所以还是希望同学们看到话题之后可以进行一定独立思考。今天我们一起看下常见的开头破冰法之一:定义法引入。

所谓“定义法”,就是下定义,对题目中的某些名词或概念进行解释,比如题目所涉及的success, responsibility,
independence,social skills,part-time
jobs等,我们可以直接解释这些概念是什么,或者大家对这些事物的看法等,还有可能涉及到重要性或者其影响等词,比如importance, benefits,
advantageous,exert positive/negative influence
on,一般一句话带过即可。下面我们结合具体题目带入“定义法引入”的具体应用。

例如:

D/A: One ofthe best ways that parents can help their teenager children
prepare for adult life is to encourage them to take a part-time job.

在这个题目中,所涉及到的名词有parents, teenager children, adult life, 和a part-time
job四个名词及词组,也就是说这个题目我们可以从四个角度进行开头段的构思。但我们应该优先从最好把握的入手。不难发现,a part-time
job属于话题的关键词眼,所以[第一步]我们可以直接针对a part-timejob进行解释,比如Part-time jobs, which act as a
warm-up for the future career, can provide children with a general image of the
society. 或者Part-time jobs is of great importance in helping children better
understand the society they are live
in.定义法解释过之后,[第二步]我们要引出题目中的其它对象,最后第三步引出自己立场。比如上边紧接着a part-time job 这一句可以For most
parents, it is really an ideal choice to help their children prepare for adult
life.[第三步]在点明观点时,我们可以紧接着提出,Thus I agree with the opinion in the
statement.甚至最后可以加一句,比如:my reasons will be detailed as follows. 或者my reasons are
as follows.

这时我们的开头段已经基本搞定:

Part-time jobs, which act as a warm-up for the future career, can provide
children with ageneral image of the society.For most parents, it is really an
ideal choice to help their children prepare for adult life.Thus I agree with the
opinion in the statement. My reasons will be detailed as follows.

这个题目还涉及到其它三个对象,也就是说,我们还可以根据上边定义法的思路以其它三种方式引出该话题,见下文供大家参考:

Parents:

Parents, as the most essential guide in our life, love us so much that they
always want a fast and steady development of us. Thus, many parents suggest
their children to work on a part-time job, which acts as a warm-up for their
future career. From where I stand, I agree with the suggestion to take on a
part-time job during teenage period. My reasons are listed as follows.

Teenage children:

Teenage is the most crucial period in one’s life, for it is a fast
developing stage both in physical and mental aspects. That is why parents are
urged to figure out the most efficient way for their children to keep up with
the quick development. Working on a part-time job is considered one of the best
solutions for many parents. From where I stand, I agree with the suggestion to
take on apart-time job during teenage period. My reasons are listed as
follows.

Adult life:

Many teenagers are looking forward to the adult life while the other are
reluctant to grow up. However, growing up is an inevitable process/stage in
one’s life. Part-time job, which acts as a warm-up for the future career, gives
children a general image of the society.From where I stand, I agree with the
suggestion to take on a part-time job during teenage period. My reasons are
listed as follows.

我们还可以以同样的方法带入其它题目,比如D/A: People should have hobbies and do physical
activities that are very different from work.

这个题目所涉及名词有work和hobbies and physical
activities,我们就以work为切入点,进行定义,然后引出开头段。比如:

For most people, work takes a massive part of our whole lives. We go to
school to prepare for a career, work through our best years, and eventually,
after retirement, live off of pension generated from the job. However, other
than the monetary part, our hobbies and physical activities might benefit us
more if they were different from our jobs.

这个开头写法相对比较灵活,并没有受原题目的限制,巧妙的引出了自己立场。值得大家参考。

丨Tips:

1. 在对题目中所涉及的名词对象下定义时,建议大家从具体名词入手,尽量避开抽象名词,以降低自己构思难度。

2. 一般情况下,开头部分篇幅长度为40-60字即可。我们的写作还是要以理由段的论述为主,所以建议同学们不要浪费太多时间在开头部分。

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